Two works from outside the mainstream deserve special attention, as harbingers of ways to move ahead. In 1955, . Knauer published his Hamburg dissertation Psalmenzitate in Augustins Konfessionen . This is the best modern study of the Confessions as literary artefact. 11 At about the same time, a Leipzig Habilitation was submitted by Horst Kusch, on the structure of the Confessions . The full work was never published, and repeated inquiries have failed to unearth a copy. 12 Kusch published a long article, 13 valuable especially for two ideas: first, that the structure of the last books of the Confessions reflects the trinitarian and triadic patterns that obsessed Augustine elsewhere; and second, that the three temptations of 1 Jn. both reflect those triadic patterns further and are significant for the structure of the early books of the Confessions . In matters of detail, Kusch must be argued with, but his instincts were sound. His work has been appreciated by some demanding judges, 14 but did not succeed in reorienting debate.